Home » ISO 14001:2015 Clause 3 Terms and definition

ISO 14001:2015 Clause 3 Terms and definition

Clause 3 Terms and definition 

In this we shall try to define and understand some of the terms used in ISO 14001:2015 ( Environmental management system) standard.

AuditCompetenceCompliance ObligationConformity – Continual ImprovementCorrective ActionDocumented InformationEffectivenessEnvironmentEnvironmental AspectEnvironmental ConditionEnvironmental ImpactEnvironmental Management SystemEnvironmental ObjectiveEnvironmental PerformanceEnvironmental PolicyIndicatorInterested PartyLife CycleManagement SystemMeasurementMonitoringNonconformityObjectiveOrganizationOutsourcePerformancePrevention of Pollution –  ProcessRequirementRiskRisks and OpportunitiesTop Management

3.1 Terms related to organization and leadership

3.1.1 management system

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization to establish policies and objectives and processes to achieve those objectives
Note 1 to entry: A management system can address   a   single discipline or several disciplines (e.g. quality,  environment, occupational   health  and  safety,  energy, financial management).
Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the   organization’s   structure,   roles   and responsibilities,   planning and   operation,  performance evaluation and improvement.
Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system   can  include  the  whole  of   the organization, specific and identified functions of  the  organization,  specific  and  identified sections of the organization, or one or more functions across a group of organizations.

Annex SL definition:

set of interrelated or interacting elements of an organization to establish policies and objectives and processes to achieve those objectives
Note 1 to entry: A management system can address a single discipline or several disciplines.
Note 2 to entry: The system elements include the organization’s structure, roles and responsibilities, planning and operation.
Note 3 to entry: The scope of a management system may include the whole of the organization, specific and identified functions of the organization, specific and identified sections of the organization, or one or more functions across a group of organizations.
(This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL.  The original definition has been modified by modifying Notes 1 and 2 to entry)

ISO 9001:2004 definition: 

none

Explanation:

A management system is a set of interrelated or interacting elements that organizations use to formulate policies and objectives and to establish the processes that are needed to ensure that policies are followed and objectives are achieved. These elements include structures, programs, procedures, practices, plans, rules, roles, responsibilities, relationships, contracts, agreements, documents, records, methods, tools, techniques, technologies, and resources. A management system is the framework of policies, processes and procedures used by an organization to ensure that it can fulfill all the tasks required to achieve its objectives. These objectives will be a mix covering many aspects of the organization’s operations (including financial success, safe operation, product quality, client relationships, legislative and regulatory conformance, worker management, etc.). For instance, an environmental management system enables organizations to improve their environmental performance and an occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) enables an organization to control its occupational health and safety risks, etc. Many parts of the management system will be common to a range of objectives, but others may be specific to an individual objective.

 There are many types of management systems. Some of these include environmental management systems, financial management systems,  risk management systems, quality management systems, business continuity management systems, food safety management systems, information security management systems, occupational health and safety management systems, compliance management systems, and emergency management systems.

3.1.2 environmental management system

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

part of the management system used to  manage  environmental  aspects, fulfil  compliance  obligations,  and address risks and opportunities

Annex SL definition: 

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

environmental management system (EMS) part of an organization’s management system used to develop and implement its environmental policy and manage its environmental aspects 
NOTE 1 A management system is a set of interrelated elements used to establish policy and objectives and to achieve those objectives.
NOTE 2 A management system includes organizational structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources.

Explanation: 

An environmental management system (EMS) is one part of a larger management system and is a set of interrelated or interacting elements that organizations use to implement their environmental policy, to achieve their environmental objectives, to meet their environmental compliance obligations, to manage their environmental aspects, and to address their environmental risks and opportunities. These elements include structures, programs, procedures, processes, practices, plans, rules, roles, regulations, responsibilities, relationships, contracts, agreements, documents, records, methods, tools, techniques, technologies, and resources.

Environmental management system (EMS) refers to the management of an organization’s environmental programs in a comprehensive, systematic, planned and documented manner. It includes the organizational structure, planning and resources for developing, implementing and maintaining policy for environmental protection.The goals of EMS are to increase compliance and reduce waste.  An environmental management system serves as a tool, or process, to improve environmental performance and information mainly “design, pollution control and waste minimization, training, reporting to top management, and the setting of goals”. It provides a systematic way of managing an organization’s environmental affairs
Is the aspect of the organization’s overall management structure that addresses immediate and long-term impacts of its products, services and processes on the environment. EMS assists with planning, controlling and monitoring policies in an organization. It also gives order and consistency for organizations to address environmental concerns through the allocation of resources, assignment of responsibility and ongoing evaluation of practices, procedures and processes. EMS creates environmental buy-in from management and employees and assigns accountability and responsibility. It sets framework for training to achieve objectives and desired performance. It helps understand legislative requirements to better determine a product or service’s impact, significance, priorities and objectives. It focuses on continual improvement of the system and a way to implement policies and objectives to meet a desired result. This also helps with reviewing and auditing the EMS to find future opportunities. Establishing EMS in the organization encourages contractors and suppliers to establish their own EMS.

3.1.3 environmental policy

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

intentions and direction of an organization related to environmental performance, as formally expressed by its top management.

Annex SL definition:

none
(The original term has been modified from “policy” to “environmental policy”, and the original definition has been modified by adding the phrase “related to environmental performance”.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

overall intentions and direction of an organization related to its environmental performance as formally expressed by top management 
NOTE The environmental policy provides a framework for action and for the setting of environmental objectives and environmental targets.

Explanation: 

A policy is a commitment, direction, or intention and is formally stated by the top management of an organization. An environmental policy should make a commitment to protect the environment, to meet all relevant compliance obligations, and to enhance environmental performance.  Environmental policy refers to the commitment of an organization to the laws, regulations, and other policy mechanisms concerning environmental issues. These issues generally include air and water pollution, solid waste management, ecosystem management, maintenance of biodiversity, the protection of natural resources, wildlife and endangered species. Policies concerning energy or regulation of toxic substances including pesticides and many types of industrial waste are part of the topic of environmental policy. This policy can be deliberately taken to direct and oversee human activities and thereby prevent harmful effects on the biophysical environment and natural resources, as well as to make sure that changes in the environment do not have harmful effects on humans.

An environmental policy must be:

  • appropriate to the organisation;
  • include a commitment for continual improvement and prevention of pollution;
  • include a commitment to comply to relevant legal and other requirements; and,
  • provide the framework for setting and reviewing environmental objectives and targets.

Also, consideration should be given to the reader’s expectations. From a customer perspective they would like to clearly know: what the organisation does and how it does it (e.g. do they follow best practice and embrace cleaner production, if so how?); understand whether the organisation is greener or browner than similar organisations; understand whether the organisation presents a direct environmental risk to their operations; understand whether the organisation presents a risk to public perception if they are engaged; understand whether the organisation present an environmental risk by not understanding and not complying with legal & other requirements; and, understand whether the organisation has any environmental programs to their reduce environmental impact and improve their environmental performance.

3.1.4 organization

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives
Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes,  but  is  not limited  to  sole-trader, company,   corporation,   firm,  enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination  thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private.

Annex SL definition:

person or group of people that has its own functions with responsibilities, authorities and relationships to achieve its objectives
Note 1 to entry: The concept of organization includes, but is not limited to sole-trader, company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority, partnership, charity or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private.

( This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

company, corporation, firm, enterprise, authority or institution, or part or combination thereof, whether incorporated or not, public or private, that has its own functions and administration
NOTE For organizations with more than one operating unit, a single operating unit may be defined as an organization.

Explanation:

An organization can be a single person or a group that achieves its objectives by using its own functions, responsibilities, authorities, and relationships. It can be a company, corporation, enterprise, firm, partnership, charity, or institution and can be either incorporated or unincorporated and be either privately or publicly owned. It can also be an operating unit that is part of a larger entity. An organization is an entity, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment.A social unit of people that is structured and managed to meet a need or to pursue collective goals. All organizations have a management structure that determines relationships between the different activities and the members, and subdivides and assigns roles, responsibilities, and authority to carry out different tasks. Organizations are open systems–they affect and are affected by their environment.

There are a variety of legal types of organizations, including corporations, governments, non-governmental organizations, political organizations, international organizations, armed forces, charities, not-for-profit corporations, partnerships, cooperatives, and educational institutions. A hybrid organization is a body that operates in both the public sector and the private sector simultaneously, fulfilling public duties and developing commercial market activities. A voluntary association is an organization consisting of volunteers. Such organizations may be able to operate without legal formalities, depending on jurisdiction, including informal clubs.

3.1.5 top management

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

person or group of people who directs and controls an organization at the highest level
 Note 1 to entry: Top management has the power  to  delegate authority  and  provide resources within the organization.
Note 2  to entry:   If  the   scope   of   the management system covers only part of  an  organization,  then  top  management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization.

Annex SL definition:

person or group of people who directs and controls an organization at the highest level
Note 1 to entry: Top management has the power to delegate authority and provide resources within the organization.
Note 2 to entry: If the scope of the management system covers only part of an organization, then top management refers to those who direct and control that part of the organization.
( This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

When ISO 14001 uses the term top management it is referring to a person or a group of people at the highest level within an organization. It refers to the people who coordinate, direct, and control organizations. The term top management normally refers to the people at the top of an organization. It refers to the people who provide resources and delegate authority and who coordinate, direct, and control organizations. However, if the scope of a management system covers only part of an organization, then the term top management refers, instead, to the people who direct and control that part of the organization.

3.1.6 interested party

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

person or organization that can affect, be  affected  by,  or  perceive  itself  to  be affected by a decision or activity
 Note 1  to  entry:  To  “perceive  itself  to  be affected”  means  the  perception  has  been made known to the organization.
EXAMPLE
Customers, communities, suppliers, regulators, non-governmental  organizations, investors and employees.

Annex SL definition:

interested party (preferred term)
stakeholder (admitted term)
person or organization  that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by a decision or activity
(The original definition has been modified by omitting the admitted term “stakeholder” and by adding Note 1 to entry and the Example.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

person or group concerned with or affected by the environmental performance of an organization.

Explanation:

An “interested party” (also known as “stakeholder”) is any individual or organisation that can affect, be affected by, or perceive itself to be affected by your organisation’s decisions or activities. An interested party is a person or group that has a stake in the environmental performance of an organization. In the context of this ISO 14001 standard, an interested party is anyone who can affect, be affected by, or believe that they are affected by the environmental performance of an organization. Interested parties may be directly affected by the organization or actively concerned with its environmental performance.  Interested parties may include, for example, customers, communities, suppliers, regulators, NGOs, investors, employees and trade unions.

3.2 Terms related to planning

3.2.1 environment

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

surroundings in which an organization  operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans and their interrelationships
Note 1 to entry: Surroundings can extend from within an organization to the local, regional and global system.
Note 2 to entry: Surroundings can be described in terms of biodiversity, ecosystems, climate or other characteristics.

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

surroundings in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans, and their interrelation
NOTE Surroundings in this context extend from within an organization to the global system.

Explanation:

Environment is “Surroundings” in which an organization operates, including air, water, land, natural resources, flora, fauna, humans, and their interrelation. Surroundings in this context extend from within an organization to the global system.”The term environment refers to an organization’s natural and human surroundings. An organization’s environment extends from within the organization itself to the global system, and includes air, water, land, flora, and fauna (including people), and natural resources of all kinds. The definition of environment includes environment and natural resources, but does not require the inclusion of safety and industrial hygiene.

3.2.2 environmental aspect

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

element of an organization’s activities or products or services that interacts or can interact with the environment
Note 1 to entry: An environmental aspect can cause (an) environmental impact(s). A significant environmental aspect is one that has or can have one or more significant environmental impact(s).

Note 2 to entry: Significant environmental aspects are determined by the organization applying one or more criteria.

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

element of an organization’s activities or products or services that can interact with the environment
NOTE A significant environmental aspect has or can have a significant environmental impact.

Explanation:

An environmental aspect is an element or characteristic of an activity, product, or service that interacts or can interact with the environment. Environmental aspects can cause environmental impacts. They can  have either beneficial impacts or adverse impacts and can have a  direct and decisive impact on the environment or contribute only  partially or indirectly to a larger environmental change. A significant environmental aspect is an environmental aspect that has or can have a significant environmental impact.

If an activity, product, or service interacts with the environment, it has an environmental aspect.But what exactly is an environmental aspect? An environmental aspect is a feature or characteristic of an activity, product, or service that affects or can affect the environment. In order to identify your environmental aspects you need to study how your organization’s activities, products, and services affect the environment. For each type of activity, product, or service you need to list your unique environmental aspects. However, you don’t have to worry about every environmental aspect. You only have to work on the most significant environmental aspects–those that have or could have a significant environmental impact. Furthermore, you do not have to work on all significant aspects, only those that you can actually influence or control.

3.2.3 environmental condition

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

state or characteristic of the environment as determined at a certain point in time

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

Environmental conditions are states or characteristics of the environment at a particular point in time. ISO 14001 expects you to identify the environmental conditions that are capable of affecting or being affected by your organization and to figure out what you need to do to prevent or reduce the risk that these conditions could adversely affect its environmental performance. Environment condition can be of types:

  1. pollution
    undesirable state of the natural environment being contaminated with harmful substances as a consequence of human activities
  2. erosion
    condition in which the earth’s surface is worn away by the action of water and wind
  3. deforestation
    the state of being clear of trees
  4. depopulation
    the condition of having reduced numbers of inhabitants (or no inhabitants at all)
  5. climate, clime
    the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time
  6. in hospitableness
    the environmental condition in a region that lacks a favorable climate or terrain for life or growth
  7. meteorological conditions
    the prevailing environmental conditions as they influence the prediction of weather
  8. biodegradable pollution
    pollution that is rendered harmless by natural processes and so causes no permanent harm
  9. nonbiodegradable pollution
    pollution that accumulates in the environment and may appear in the food chain
  10. air pollution
    pollution of the atmosphere
  11. noise pollution, sound pollution
    annoying and potentially harmful environmental noise
  12. thermal pollution
    harm to lakes and rivers resulting from the release of excessive waste heat into them
  13. water pollution
    pollution of the water in rivers and lakes

3.2.4 environmental impact

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s  environmental aspects.

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s environmental aspects.

Explanation:

An environmental impact is any change to the environment, whether adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an organization’s activities, products or service. Environmental impacts are caused by environmental aspects. Your environmental aspects can have a direct and decisive impact on the environment or contribute only partially or indirectly to a larger environmental change. An environmental aspect can have either a direct and decisive impact on the environment or contribute only partially or indirectly to a larger environmental change. In addition, it can have either a beneficial environmental impact or an adverse environmental impact. The combination of environmental aspects with the environmental impacts is the first step in establishing the significance of the environmental aspect.

3.2.5 objective

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

result to be achieved 
Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational. 
Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and environmental goals) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product, service and process).
Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an operational criterion, as an environmental objective, or by the use of other words with similar meaning (e.g. aim, goal, or target).

Annex SL definition:

result to be achieved
Note 1 to entry: An objective can be strategic, tactical, or operational.
Note 2 to entry: Objectives can relate to different disciplines (such as financial, health and safety, and environmental goals) and can apply at different levels (such as strategic, organization-wide, project, product and process).
Note 3 to entry: An objective can be expressed in other ways, e.g. as an intended outcome, a purpose, an operational criterion, as an XXX objective, or by the use of other words with similar meaning (e.g. aim, goal, or target).
Note 4 to entry: In the context of XXX management systems, XXX objectives are set by the organization, consistent with the XXX policy, to achieve specific results.
(The original definition has been modified by modifying Note 2 to entry and adding Note 3 to entry.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation: 

An objective is a result you intend to achieve. Objectives can be strategic, tactical, or operational and can apply to an organization as a whole or to  system, process, project, product, or service. It is a  specific result that the organization or system aims to achieve within a time frame and with available resources.In general, objectives are more specific and easier to measure than goals. Objectives are basic tools that underlie all planning and strategic activities. They serve as the basis for creating policy and evaluating performance. Objectives may also be referred to as targets, aims, goals, or intended outcomes.

3.2.6 environmental objective

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

objective set by the organization consistent with its environmental
policy

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

overall environmental goal, consistent with the environmental policy, that an organization sets itself to achieve

Explanation:

An environmental objective is an environmental result your organization intends to achieve. Your organization’s environmental objectives should be based on or derived from its environmental policy and must be consistent with this policy.

Environmental objectives are the overall aims that your business sets itself to improve environmental performance through its environmental management system (EMS). They indicate your business’ aims – eg to reduce waste going to landfill by 25 per cent over five years.

Environmental targets provide short-term goals on the way to achieving these overall objectives. One objective can have several targets – eg one target could be to reduce waste going to landfill by 10 per cent in the first year.

Your objectives and targets should be based on:

  • your environmental policy
  • information gained from your initial review
  • your register of legislation

They should aim to address any significant environmental aspects and should incorporate specific legal requirements contained in regulations and consents.

When setting environmental objectives and targets, it is important you:

  • identify the individual or department responsible for ensuring that they are met
  • identify someone to oversee the implementation of changes and check that targets are met
  • ensure that the measures taken do not indirectly create another significant environmental aspect

When setting objectives, you should keep in mind the SMART criteria. This means that all targets should be:

  • Specific – each target should address only one issue.
  • Measurable – your targets should be expressed quantitatively and in absolute terms – eg 10 per cent reduction per unit. Setting an overall energy reduction target of 10 per cent is vague and requires qualification, as there will be variables, such as the level of production.
  • Achievable – targets should be possible to meet for everyone involved.
  • Realistic – your targets should be challenging but not overly ambitious, as they can always be revised once they have been met.
  • Time-bound – your target must be assigned a deadline for attainment.

3.2.7 prevention of pollution

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

use of processes, practices, techniques, materials, products, services or energy to avoid, reduce or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts
Note 1 to entry: Prevention of pollution can include source reduction or elimination; process, product or service changes; efficient use of resources; material and energy substitution; reuse; recovery; recycling, reclamation; or treatment.

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

use of processes, practices, techniques, materials, products, services or energy to avoid, reduce or control (separately or in combination) the creation, emission or discharge of any type of pollutant or waste, in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts
NOTE Prevention of pollution can include source reduction or elimination, process, product or service changes, efficient use of resources, material and energy substitution, reuse, recovery, recycling, reclamation and treatment.

Explanation:

Prevention of Pollution means use of processes, practices, materials or products that avoid, reduce or control pollution, which may include recycling, treatment, process changes, control mechanisms, efficient use of resources and material substitution. To prevent pollution means to avoid, reduce, or control the creation, emission, or discharge of contaminants or waste materials. Pollution must be prevented in order to reduce adverse environmental impacts.Organizations use a wide variety of methods, techniques, practices, processes, products, and services to prevent pollution. These include the reduction or elimination of pollution at the source; the efficient use of resources, materials, and energy; the reuse, recovery, reclamation,and recycling of resources; the redesign of processes, products, and services; and the substitution of one type of energy source or substance for another cleaner energy source or substance.  The potential benefits of prevention of pollution include the reduction of adverse environmental impacts, improved efficiency and reduced costs. The organization must commit to review and utilize where appropriate the following prevention of pollution techniques –  recycling, treatment, process change, control mechanisms,efficient use of resources and material substitution.

3.2.8 requirement

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory
Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization and interested parties that the need or expectation under consideration is implied.
Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information.
Note 3 to entry: Requirements other than legal requirements become obligatory when the organization decides to comply with them.

Annex SL definition:

need or expectation that is stated, generally implied or obligatory
Note 1 to entry: “Generally implied” means that it is custom or common practice for the organization and interested parties that the need or expectation under consideration is implied.
Note 2 to entry: A specified requirement is one that is stated, for example in documented information.
(The original definition has been modified by adding Note 3 to entry.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation: 

A requirement is a need, expectation, or obligation. It can be stated or implied by an organization, its customers, or other interested parties. A specified requirement is one that has  been stated (in a document for example), whereas an implied requirement is a need, expectation, or obligation that is common practice or customary. There are many types of requirements. Some of these include  quality requirements, customer requirements, management requirements, product requirements, and legal requirements.

3.2.9 compliance obligations (preferred term)

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

legal requirements and other requirements (admitted term)
legal requirements that an organization has to comply with and other requirements that an organization has to or chooses to comply with
Note 1 to entry: Compliance obligations are related to the environmental management system

Note 2 to entry: Compliance obligations can arise from mandatory requirements, such as applicable laws and regulations, or voluntary commitments, such as organizational and industry standards, contractual relationships, codes of practice and agreements with community groups or non-governmental organizations.

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

A compliance obligation is a requirement. There are two kinds of compliance obligations: mandatory compliance obligations and voluntary compliance obligations. Mandatory compliance obligations include laws and regulations while voluntary compliance obligations include contractual commitments, community and industry standards, ethical codes of conduct, and good governance guidelines. A voluntary obligation becomes mandatory once you decide to comply with it. Compliance  obligations must be considered in the EMS Scope, Environmental policy, Environmental objective, Management review and also while determining the significance of environmental aspects. There should be  Staff competence and awareness to ensure obligations are fulfilled. There should be Communication of obligations, including with interested parties. Documentation should be available  to demonstrate fulfillment of obligations. There should be monitoring, measurement, analysis and evaluation of compliance obligation

3.2.10 risk

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

effect of uncertainty 
Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected — positive or negative.
Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or knowledge of, an event, its consequence, or likelihood.
Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential “events” and “consequences” or a combination of these.
Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and the associated “likelihood”  of occurrence.

Annex SL definition:

effect of uncertainty
Note 1 to entry: An effect is a deviation from the expected — positive or negative.
Note 2 to entry: Uncertainty is the state, even partial, of deficiency of information related to, understanding or knowledge of, an event, its consequence, or likelihood.
Note 3 to entry: Risk is often characterized by reference to potential “events” and “consequences” or a combination of these.
Note 4 to entry: Risk is often expressed in terms of a combination of the consequences of an event (including changes in circumstances) and the associated “likelihood” of occurrence.
( This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

According to ISO 31000 2009, risk is the “effect of uncertainty on objectives” and an effect is a positive or negative deviation from what is expected.  From that description, it is easy to envisage how any type of definable risk can have a negative effect on key performance indicators, which are effectively an organization’s “vital signs,” as well as a negative effect on the environment as a whole. Risk is often expressed as a combination of two factors: probability and consequences. It asks two questions: what is the probability that a potential event will occur in the future? And what consequences would this event produce or what impact would it have if it occurred? Uncertainty (or lack of certainty) is a state or condition that involves a deficiency of information and leads to inadequate or incomplete knowledge or understanding. In the context of risk management,uncertainty exists whenever the knowledge or understanding of an event, consequence, or likelihood is inadequate or incomplete. Risk can come in many forms, for example financial uncertainty, project failure, security aspects, competition, technology problems, the effect on the environment from operations carried out by your business, whether waste produced, dangerous emission, or energy consumption. Therefore, it is sensible that the ISO 14001 Standard seeks to add extra emphasis and importance to this aspect, which potentially affects every business and its impact on the environment.

3.2.11 risks and opportunities

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

potential adverse effects (threats) and potential beneficial effects (opportunities)

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

According to ISO 14001 2015, risks are potential adverse effects (or threats) and opportunities are potential beneficial effects. Risk and opportunity have three things in common:

  • They are concerned with events that may – or may not – happen in the future.
  • The events are identifiable but their effect are uncertain, although less uncertain than the probabilities.
  • The outcome of the events can be influenced by our actions

A risk is something that can be a problem in the future. It is defined by two parameters
The consequences(C). What will happen if the risk becomes a problem?
The probability( p). What is the probability that the risk will become a problem?
The risk(R) is defined as R = C*p
An opportunity is something that can be beneficial in the future. It is defined by two parameters
The value(V). What will happen if the opportunity becomes a reality?
The probability(p). What is the probability that the opportunity will be realized?
The opportunity(O) is defined as O = V*p
Risks may turn into problems. We can reduce or avoid future problems by reducing their consequences or their probabilities. This can be done by

  • Changing the way we work to
    • Replace a high risk activity with a low risk activity.
    • Remove the risk possibility
  • Adding risk avoidance activities to the way we work

Opportunities may turn into benefits. We can increase future benefits by increasing their probabilities. This can be done by

  • Changing the way we work – replace a low opportunity activity with a high opportunity activity.
  • Adding opportunity enabling activities to the way we work

Both risk and opportunity is defined by value and probability.
Experience and data are important for two reasons. They can:

  • Be used to estimate values and probabilities.
  • Serve as an anchor for assessment – e.g. “How bad can it get?”

3.3 Terms related to support and operation

3.3.1 competence

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results

Annex SL definition:

ability to apply knowledge and skills to achieve intended results
( This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

Competence means being able to apply knowledge and skill to achieve intended results. Being competent means having the knowledge and skill that you need and knowing how to apply it.  It means that you’re qualified to do the job.

Unlike ISO 9001, which looks at the ability of the employees to maintain the processes in order to produce good product, ISO 14001 is concerned with how the processes interact with the environment. In essence, how does the organization ensure that employees (or other outside workers) who are running processes with the potential for significant environmental impacts are able to do so in such a way that those impacts do not happen?  There is a basic three-step process for this, called competence, training, and awareness. The first step is to identify what skills and abilities are required for a person to perform the job function so as to avoid the potential significant impacts. This competence can be gained in the form of outside education, training, or experience. For instance, if you have a chemical process that must maintain the concentration of a bath to a certain pH, or else there will be unwanted air emissions, then this bath concentration must be maintained. If you require the operator to measure the concentrations and adjust the pH level through addition of an acid or base, then there is a level of chemical knowledge required to perform this action. It may not require the operator to hold a degree in chemistry, but chemical knowledge must be there in order to avoid the unwanted environmental impact of air emissions.

3.3.2 documented information

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization and the medium on which it is contained 
Note 1 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media, and from any source. 
Note 2 to entry: Documented information can refer to: 

  • the environmental management system including related processes
  • information created in order for the organization to operate (can be referred to as documentation);
  •  evidence of results achieved (can be referred to as records)
Annex SL definition:

information required to be controlled and maintained by an organization and the medium on which it is contained 
Note 1 to entry: Documented information can be in any format and media, and from any source. 
Note 2 to entry: Documented information can refer to: 

  • the management system including related processes
  • information created in order for the organization to operate (can be referred to as documentation);
  •  evidence of results achieved (can be referred to as records)

(The original definition has been modified by modifying Note 2 to entry.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

The term “documented information” is meant to describe any meaningful data that is required to be controlled and maintained by the organization, and the medium on which it is contained. Documented information can refer to the Environmental Management System and its processes, documentation, and records. So, in brief, it includes anything that you require to be recorded to make sure your EMS functions properly and that you can demonstrate that this is the case Documented information can be in any format and on any medium and can come from any source. Documented information includes information about the environmental management system and related processes. It also includes all the information that organizations need to operate and all the information that they use to document the results that they achieve ie records.

Your EMS needs to document the information that is required by the ISO 14001 standard, and the information that your organization has determined is necessary for the effectiveness of your EMS. This information is expected to be tailored to your company, because it is noted that the extent of the documented information can differ due to the size of the organization, the complexity of the organization, and the competence of the people. There are requirements for the control of documented information, particularly how:

  • it is available and suitable for use,
  • it is adequately protected,
  • it is distributed applicably, and
  • access, retrieval, use, storage, and preservation are controlled.

There is also need for control of changes, retention of documented information, and disposition when these documents are removed from use.

3.3.3 life cycle

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

consecutive and interlinked stages of a product (or service) system, from raw material acquisition or generation from natural resources to final disposal
Note 1 to entry: The life cycle stages include acquisition of raw materials, design, production, transportation/ delivery, use, end- of-life treatment and final disposal.

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:
none

Explanation:

In the context of this standard, the term life cycle refers to the consecutive and interlinked stages of a product system from the acquisition of raw materials to end-of-life disposal. The life cycle  a product system includes all associated activities, products, and services and may include procured goods and services as well as end-of-life treatment, decommissioning, and disposal. A life cycle perspective includes consideration of the environmental aspects of an organization’s activities, products, and services that it can control or influence. Stages in a life cycle include acquisition of raw materials, design, production, transportation/delivery, use, end of life treatment, and final disposal.
When applying a life cycle perspective to its products and services, the organization should consider the following:

  • the stage in the life cycle of the product or service,
  • the degree of control it has over the life cycle stages, e.g. a product designer may be responsible for raw material selection, whereas a manufacturer may only be responsible for reducing raw material use and minimizing process waste and the user may only be responsible for use and disposal of the product,
  • the degree of influence it has over the life cycle, e.g. the designer may only influence the manufacturers production methods, whereas the manufacturer my also influence the design and the way the product is used or its method of disposal,
  • the life of the product,
  • the organization’s influence on the supply chain,
  • the length of the supply chain, and
  • the technological complexity of the product.

The organization can consider those stages in the life cycle over which it has the greatest control or influence as these may offer the greatest opportunity to reduce resource use and minimize pollution or waste.

3.3.4 outsource (verb)

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

make an arrangement where an external organization performs part of an organization’s function or process
Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system, although the outsourced function or process is within the scope.

Annex SL definition:

make an arrangement where an external organization performs part of an organization’s function or process
Note 1 to entry: An external organization is outside the scope of the management system, although the outsourced function or process is within the scope.
(This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

When an organization makes an arrangement with an outside organization to perform part of a function or process, it is referred to as outsourcing. To outsource means to ask an external organization to perform part of a function or process normally done in house. While the outsourced organization is beyond the scope of your EMS, the outsourced process or function itself may fall within the scope.  An outsourced process is one that fulfils all of the following:

  • it is within the scope of the environmental management system;
  • it is integral to the organization’s functioning;
  • it is needed for the environmental management system to achieve its intended outcome;
  • liability for conforming to requirements is retained by the organization;
  • the organization and the external provider have a relationship where the process is perceived by interested parties as being carried out by the organization.

When a process is outsourced,….. the organization’s ability to exert control or influence can vary from direct control to limited or no influence.  In some cases, an outsourced process performed onsite might be under the direct control of an organization; in other cases, an organization’s ability to influence an outsourced process ….. might be limited.

3.3.5 process

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs
Note 1 to entry: A process can be documented or not.

Annex SL definition:

set of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputs
(The original definition has been modified by adding Note 1 to entry.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

A process is a set of activities that are interrelated or that interact with one another. They transform inputs into outputs. Processes are interconnected because the output from one process often becomes the input for another process.

Let’s understand some basics about processes.

  • All work generally involves a process – things go in (inputs); get worked upon (conversion); and come out differently (output). The value-adding conversion activity within a process transforms inputs into outputs, e.g. takes raw materials (the input) and manufactures (the value-adding conversion activity using various resources) a product (the output).
  • Process inputs and outputs can be tangible such as raw materials or finished product or intangible  like  INFORMATION – e.g. computerized drawing or specification.
  • All processes have a supplier and a customer. These suppliers and customers may be internal processes or external to your organization. Each process must have an accountable owner, i.e., having defined responsibility and authority to operate, control and improve their process.
  • All processes require the use of resources, e.g. – people, equipment, materials, technology etc. These resources can be used as inputs (raw materials or information such as a customer specification) as well as for the value-adding conversion activity (e.g. use of machinery, equipment, computers, technology, people, etc.) to transform raw material (input) into finished product (output).
  • All processes must meet customer, organizational and applicable regulatory requirements. The performance of all processes can be monitored and measured. Gather performance data that can be analyzed to determine process effectiveness and whether any corrective action or improvement is needed.

As an example, the below process contains a set of activities that are interrelated (showing links from/to), interacting (showing inputs/ outputs), and the transformation of process inputs into process outputs.single process

single process 1

Schematic Representation of the elements of single process

3.4 Terms related to performance evaluation and improvement

3.4.1 audit

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled 
Note 1 to entry: An internal audit is conducted by the organization itself, or by an external party on its behalf. 
Note 2 to entry: An audit can be a combined audit (combining two or more disciplines).
Note 3 to entry: Independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited or freedom from bias and conflict of interest.
Note 4 to entry: “Audit evidence” consists of records, statements of fact or other information which are relevant to the audit criteria and are verifiable; and “audit criteria” are the set of policies, procedures or requirements used as a reference against which audit evidence is compared, as defined in ISO 19011:2011, 3.3 and 3.2 respectively.

Annex SL definition:

systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the audit criteria are fulfilled
Note 1 to entry: An audit can be an internal audit (first party) or an external audit (second party or third party), and it can be a combined audit (combining two or more disciplines).
Note 2 to entry: An internal audit is conducted by the organization itself, or by an external party on its behalf.
Note 3 to entry: “Audit evidence” and “audit criteria” are defined in ISO 19011.
(The original definition has been modified by modifying the Notes to entry.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

internal audit
systematic, independent and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which the environmental management system audit criteria set by the organization are fulfilled
NOTE In many cases, particularly in smaller organizations, independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited.

Explanation: 

An audit is an evidence gathering process. Evidence is used to evaluate how well audit criteria are being met. Audits must be objective, impartial, and independent, and the audit process must be both systematic and documented. Audits can be either internal or external. Internal audits are referred to as first-party audits while external audits  can be either second or third party. They can also be combined audits  (when two or more management systems of different disciplines are  audited together at the same time). Audit evidence includes records, factual statements, and other verifiable information that is related to the audit criteria being used. Audit criteria may be thought of as a reference point and include policies, requirements, and other forms of documented information. They are compared against audit evidence to determine how well they are being met. Audit evidence is used to determine how well policies are being implemented and how well requirements are being followed.

Internal audits, sometimes called first-party audits, are conducted by, or on behalf of, the organization itself for management review and other internal purposes, and may form the basis for an organization’s declaration of conformity.  In many cases, particularly in smaller organizations, independence can be demonstrated by the freedom from responsibility for the activity being audited. External audits include those generally termed second- and third-party audits. Second-party audits are conducted by parties having an interest in the organization, such as customers, or by other persons on their behalf. Third-party audits are conducted by external, independent auditing organizations,such as those providing certification/ registration  of conformity to ISO 9001 or ISO 14001. When two or more management systems  are audited together, this is termed a combined audit. When two or more auditing organizations cooperate to audit a single auditee, this is termed a joint audit.An audit is a systematic, independent, and documented process for obtaining audit evidence and evaluating it objectively to determine the extent to which audit criteria are fulfilled. Audits are structured and formal evaluations. The term systematic means the company must plan and document its system for auditing. It must have management support and resources behind it. Audits must be performed in an impartial manner, which requires auditors to have freedom from bias or other influences that could affect their objectivity. For example, having responsibility for the work, or a vested interest or shares in a supplier or third party company they are assigned to audit, would be conflicts of interest. Internal audits must be carried out to a procedure according to requirements given in clause 9.2 of ISO 14001:2015. The procedure must address the responsibilities for conducting the audits, ensuring independence, recording results, and reporting to management. Audits obtain objective evidence of conformity with requirements. The evidence must be based on fact and may be obtained through observation, measurement, test, or by other means. Evaluating the extent to which audit criteria are fulfilled involves an assessment of both implementation and effectiveness. Is the organization practicing what it described in its documentation? Are the practices being carried out well? The presence of nonconformities in a department or process may indicate the system is ineffective for those areas

3.4.2 conformity

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

fulfilment of a requirement

Annex SL definition:

fulfilment of a requirement
(This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

To conform means to meet a requirement (or a compliance obligation).  There are quality requirements, customer requirements, product requirements, management requirements, legal requirements, and so on. Since there are many kinds of requirements, conformity can take many forms. You can conform (or comply) with mandatory requirements like laws and regulations or with voluntary requirements such as contracts, agreements, codes, and standards. In the context of environmental management, you can conform (or comply) with (or to) the ISO 14001 requirements (or obligations and to any additional environmental management requirements (or obligations) that your organization establishes for itself.

3.4.3 nonconformity

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

non-fulfilment of a requirement
Note 1 to entry: Nonconformity relates to requirements in this International Standard and additional environmental management system requirements that an organization establishes for itself

Annex SL definition:

non-fulfilment of a requirement
(The original definition has been modified by adding Note 1 to entry.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

non-fulfilment of a requirement

Explanation:

Nonconformity refers to the “non-fulfilment of a requirement”. When an organization fails to meet a requirement, a nonconformity exists. Since there are many kinds of requirements, nonconformity can take many forms. You can fail to conform (or fail to comply) with mandatory requirements like laws and regulations or with voluntary requirements such as contracts, agreements, codes, and standards.  Nonconformity refers to a failure to comply with requirements.A nonconformity  is a deviation from a specification, a standard, or an expectation.  A requirement is a need, expectation, or obligation. It can be stated or implied by an organization, its customers, or other  interested parties.  There are many types of requirements. Some of these include quality requirements, customer requirements, management requirements, product requirements, and legal requirements. Whenever your organization fails to meet one of these requirements, a nonconformity occurs. When your organization deviates from these requirements, a nonconformity occurs.  Nonconformities are classified as either critical, major, or minor.

  • Minor nonconformity – Any nonconformity which does not adversely affect the performance, durability, interchangeability, reliability, maintainability, effective use or operation, weight or appearance (where a factor), health or safety of a product. Multiple minor nonconformities when considered collectively may raise the category to a major or critical nonconformity.

  • Major nonconformity – Any nonconformity other than critical, which may result in failure or materially reduce the usability of the product for the intended purpose (i.e. effective use or operation, weight or appearance (where a factor), health or safety) and which can not be completely eliminated by rework or reduced to a minor nonconformity by an approved repair.

  • Critical nonconformity – Any nonconformity which may result in hazardous or unsafe conditions for individuals using, maintaining or depending upon the product or prevent performance of a vital products.

3.4.4 corrective action

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

action to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity and to prevent recurrence
Note 1 to entry: There can be more than one cause for a nonconformity.

Annex SL definition:

action to eliminate the cause of a nonconformity and to prevent recurrence
(The original definition has been modified by adding Note 1 to entry.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

action to eliminate the cause of a detected nonconformity

Explanation:

Corrective actions are steps that are taken to prevent recurrence by eliminating the cause or causes of an existing nonconformity. The corrective action process tries to make sure that existing nonconformities don’t happen again. Corrective actions address actual problems. In general, the corrective action process can be thought of as a problem solving process. No EMS is perfect. You will probably identify problems with your system (especially in the early phases) through audits, measurement, or other activities.  Corrective action is a reaction to any of the cause/non-conformance mentioned above and can be divided in two phases of action:

  1. Identification of root cause: Total Quality Management  tools such as fish-bone or cause and effects analysis can be practiced. Corrective Action is appropriate and effective if and only if the root cause of problem(s) has been identified.
  2. Taking necessary actions: The effectiveness of the corrective action taken has to be verified periodically through a systematic approach of PDCA (plan-do-check-act) cycle.

3.4.5 continual improvement

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

recurring activity to enhance performance
Note 1 to entry: Enhancing performance relates to the use of the environmental management system to enhance environmental performance consistent with the organization’s environmental policy .
Note 2 to entry: The activity need not take place in all areas simultaneously, or without interruption.

Annex SL definition:

recurring activity to enhance performance
(The original definition has been modified by adding Notes 1 and 2 to entry)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

recurring process of enhancing the environmental management system in order to achieve improvements in overall environmental performance consistent with the organization’s environmental policy
NOTE The process need not take place in all areas of activity simultaneously.

Explanation:

In the context of this EMS standard, continual improvement is a set of recurring activities that organizations use to enhance their environmental performance. Environmental performance is enhanced whenever the environmental aspects of activities, processes, products, services, and systems are controlled and whenever adverse environmental impacts are reduced and beneficial environmental impacts are produced. The term continual improvement is used to identify the need to systematically improve different processes within the EMS in order to provide improvements overall. It is unreasonable to expect that every process within the EMS will be improving all the time, so continual improvement is used to plan, monitor, and realize improvement in some processes that have been identified for improvement. While there are many ways that continual improvement can be planned within an EMS, two of the main processes identified in the requirements of ISO 14001 are the use of environmental objectives and risk-based thinking. Through the proper use of these two processes you can see great benefits from continual improvement in your EMS.

3.4.6 effectiveness

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved

Annex SL definition:

extent to which planned activities are realized and planned results achieved
(This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

Effectiveness refers to the degree to which a planned effect is achieved. Planned activities are effective if these activities are realized. Similarly, planned results are effective if these results are actually achieved. An effective process is one that realizes planned activities and achieves planned results. Similarly, an effective set of characteristics or specifications is one that has the potential to realize planned activities and achieve planned results.Effectiveness is about doing the right task, completing activities and achieving goals.

3.4.7 indicator

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

measurable representation of the condition or status of operations, management or conditions

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

An indicator is a “measurable representation”. It is used to indicate or measure the status or condition of an operation or an activity. In the context of this standard, indicators can be used to quantify and evaluate environmental performance. They can be used to measure how much success you’ve had and how much progress you’ve made relative to the environmental objectives you wish to achieve and the environmental policy you wish to implement. Indicators can also be used to monitor trends and to support decision making.Key performance indicators are used in a Environment Management System to define the critical feature or features of a process that will control the process so that it meets environment performance requirement. By monitoring and controlling the key performance indicator, and maintaining the level of the indicator as required, you can ensure that the environment performance requirement is being met.For example, say you are in the chemical industry and you have a process that performs a chemical reaction using a substance that has a severely negative effect on the environment. Since this chemical is identified as having a significant environmental effect, then the amount of this chemical used might be identified as a key performance indicator to monitor and control as part of your EMS.

3.4.8 monitoring

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

determining the status of a system, a process or an activity
Note 1 to entry: To determine the status, there might be a need to check, supervise or critically observe.

Annex SL definition:

determining the status of a system, a process or an activity
Note 1 to entry: To determine the status, there might be a need to check, supervise or critically observe.
(This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

To monitor means to determine the status of an activity, process, or system at different stages or at different times. In order to determine status, you may need to supervise and to continually observe and check the activity, process, or system that is being monitored.Monitoring and measurement help you to evaluate environmental performance, analyze root causes of problems,  assess compliance with legal requirements, identify areas requiring corrective action, and, improve performance and increase efficiency. Your organization should develop means to monitor key characteristics of operations and activities that can have significant environmental impacts and/or compliance consequences and also track performance (including your progress in achieving objectives and targets).  You must also calibrate and maintain monitoring equipment.,

3.4.9 measurement

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

process to determine a value

Annex SL definition:

process to determine a value
(This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation: 

Measurement is the process by which the fundamental quantities and qualities of members of a system, together with their relationships are derived and documented. The clearest example of this process is measurement of physical properties such as counts – how many, mass, weights, distance.The process of measurement consists of obtaining a quantitative comparison between a predefined standard and a measurand.
Measurand = Physical parameter being measured: length, temperature, fluid flow, acoustics, motion etc
Standard of comparison: must be of the same characters as the measurand, and is prescribed and defined by a legal of recognized agency, e.g.:
NIST = The National Institute of Standards and Technology.
ISO = The International Organization for Standardization.
ANSI = The American National Standards Institute.
Measurement is fundamental basis for all research, design, and development and its role is :

  • fault diagnosis and trouble shooting (process monitoring).
  • Quality control.
  • Fits and tolerances.
  • CL (Feedback) system.
  • Feed-forward control systems.
  • New understanding of physical world.
  • Test for any theory, design or development.

Fundamental Methods of Measurement:

  • Direct Comparison with either a primary or secondary standard.
  • Indirect Comparison through the use of a calibration.

The generalized Measuring System
Most measuring systems fall within the framework of a general arrangement consisting of three phases (stages):
Stage 1 : Detection-  transduction, or sensor- transducer, stage.
Stage 2 : Signal conditioning stage.
Stage 3 : Readout- recording stage.

3.4.10 performance

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

measurable result
Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.
Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes, products (including services), systems or organizations.

Annex SL definition:

measurable result
Note 1 to entry: Performance can relate either to quantitative or qualitative findings.
Note 2 to entry: Performance can relate to the management of activities, processes, products (including services), systems or organizations.(This constitutes one of the common terms and core definitions for ISO management system standards given in Annex SL.)

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

none

Explanation:

According to ISO, the term performance refers to a measurable result. It refers to the measurable results that activities, processes, products, services, systems and organizations are able to achieve. So whenever processes, products, services, systems, or organizations perform well it means that acceptable results are being achieved.

3.4.11 environmental performance

ISO 14001:2015 definitions:

performance related to the management of environmental aspects
Note 1 to entry: For an environmental management system, results can be measured against the organization’s environmental policy, environmental objectives or other criteria, using indicators.

Annex SL definition:

none

ISO 9001:2004 definition:

measurable results of an organization’s management of its environmental aspects
NOTE In the context of environmental management systems, results can be measured against the organization’s environmental policy, environmental objectives, environmental targets and other environmental performance requirements.

Explanation:

The term environmental performance refers to the environmental results that are achieved whenever the environmental aspects of activities, processes, products, services, systems, and organizations are managed and controlled. Environmental performance is improved whenever the environmental aspects of activities, processes, products, services, systems, and organizations are managed and controlled and whenever adverse environmental impacts are reduced and beneficial environmental impacts are produced. Environmental performance is all about how well an organization manages the environmental aspects of its activities, products, and services and the impact they have on the environment. The organization’s environmental performance can be improved by reducing its negative environmental impact or increasing its positive environmental impact.In order to be able to determine how well environmental aspects are being managed, environmental performance should be measurable. You can measure your overall environmental performance by comparing your environmental management achievements against your environmental policy, objectives, targets, or any other suitable environmental performance requirements.

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